•Clear Braces

There are two kinds of clear braces, plastic and aluminum oxide. The aluminum oxide brackets are much stronger and don’t stain. They have evolved a lot since they were released 20 years ago. They work in the same fashion as the metal braces. Due to the fact that they are less visible, most adult patients prefer these.

We are now using clear braces on all of our patients. They show the colors better and if the patient wants to go “no color” or “invisible” for a month, that is easily done.

•Metal Braces

These are the most commonly used in orthodontics; they allow 3 dimensional movements of the teeth into their proper position and articulation. These allow patients to spruce them up by adding colour with the elastics that tie in the wire.


This is a way to move teeth with clear aligners rather than braces. Aligners are very good to use in simple type cases that don’t require the closure of extractors, spacers and treatment that involves large tooth movements. Dr. Clarke is a registered user of Invisalign®.

•Functional Appliances

There are many different types of functional appliances, some removable and some fixed. These appliances are used during growth to help modify the growth pattern of the upper or low jaws. Some correcting protrusion or over bites, cross bites and under bites. The appliances are easily acceptable by the patients and have a great end result.


This is an appliance that is used to correct over bites or protrusions. This is no longer used in Dr. Clarke’s practice but is very functional.


These are removable elastics worn closer to the end of treatment. They help align the teeth in a more favorable articulation. Patients remove the elastics for eating and brushing, and reapply new ones after. There are many different ways to wear elastics each way guides the teeth in a different direction.

•Lingual Braces

These are similar to metal braces but are on the tongue side of the teeth. They are much harder to work with and are much more expensive for both the patient and Orthodontist. They are totally invisible.

Dr. Clarke is a registerd Incognito™ user.


Sometimes extractions are necessary to correct crowding or a protrusion. The teeth that are usually extracted are premolars, but in some cases other teeth are also extracted.

•Palatal Expander

This is a fixed appliance that is placed in on the roof of the mouth. It is used to expand the upper jaw. This is easily activated by the patient’s parents on a daily basis.

•Jaw Surgery

Sometimes when a protrusion or under bite is present and a functional appliance is not possible, the patient may require jaw surgery. There are many different types of surgery. The jaws are no longer “wired shut”. Elastics are placed to hold the jaws into position until they heal. Braces are required before the surgery to align the teeth to their favorable position, during the surgery to attach the elastics to and after the surgery to do the final positioning.